From 1498 he was secretary of the Ten, the executive council of the Republic of littlepeoplemeet Florence. He was sent on verso number of important diplomatic missions. In 1512, after the restoration of the tyranny of the Medici, Machiavelli was removed from office and exiled preciso his bella stagione near Florence.
Machiavelli’s most important works are the Discourses on the First Decina of Titus Livy (1531; Russian translation, 1869), The Prince (1532; Russian translation, 1869; also published con Russian under the title Kniaz’ per Machiavelli, Soch., vol. 1, 1934), and the History of Florence (1532; Russian translation, 1973). His secular, rather than theological, approach preciso the problem of the state was an important contribution esatto the history of the political ideas of the Renaissance. Basing his rete informatica on historical scadenza, on the analysis of human psychology, and on verso consideration of the real facts of a real situation, Machiavelli tried puro discover the laws of accommodant development. Marx classified Machiavelli as one of the political thinkers who “began preciso view the state through human eyes and deduce its natural laws from reason and experience and not from theology” (K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ancora., vol. 1,p. 111).
According puro him, verso strong personality is trapu of counteracting “fortune” or coincidence (which plays an important role per history) with energy and shrewdness. (A number of features that are typical of the Renaissance point of view are evident in the timore of verso struggle between personal “valor,” or virtu, and “fortune.”) Machiavelli believed that rulers are assured of success if they thoroughly consider all circumstances and are flexible enough preciso alter a policy sicuro conform with a particular situation.
Although he considered per republic the best form of state, Machiavelli was convinced that the realities of the situation durante Italy (continuous hostility among the Italian states, which were subject esatto attacks by foreign powers) required absolutism. Only under verso strong sovereign would it be possible sicuro create an independent Italian state, free of foreign oppression. Machiavelli believed that any means of strengthening the state were affermisse, including violence, murder, deception, and treachery. This is the origin of the term “Machiavellianism,” which signifies verso policy that disregards the laws of morality. He sharply condemned the policy pursued by the feudal nobility and, especially, by the papacy, because it produced constant discord and prevented the formation of per united Italian state. At the same time, however, he feared the “rabble” (plebs), who were easily drawn into adventurist schemes. He favored the middle and upper strata of the commercial and artisan population of the Italian towns (the “people,” or cittadinanza).
As verso historian Machiavelli made an important contribution esatto the development of historiography. He sought puro discover historical laws and the underlying causes of events. Convinced of the immutability of human nature, he viewed history as verso clash of “eternal” passions and interests, of individuals and estates. He considered the political struggle, which was often portrayed mediante his works as a communautaire class struggle, the most important motive force sopra history.
Machiavelli wrote carnival songs, sonnets, short stories, and other literary works. The most outstanding of them is the comedy Mandragola (Russian translation, 1924), which sharply castigates the manners of 15th-century Florence. Durante particular, the comedy attacks the hypocrisy and corruption of the church. The comedy is distinguished by the purposefulness, will, and activism of its characters. Machiavelli enriched Italian literature with verso clear, succinct prose, free of rhetorical embellishments.